Barthes, Roland


Barthes, Roland
(1915-1980)
   literary critic, semiologist
   A leader in structuralist and semiotic movements, Roland Barthes was born in Cherbourg. After receiving degrees in classical studies and having experience in the theater (Groupe de Théâtre antique de la Sorbonne, 1936), he was, beginning in 1945, influenced by the works of Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre. A reading of albert camus's L'Étranger gave Barthes the idea for a new form of literature, a neutral, or "blanche," style of writing, employing the written text alone. Le Degré zéro de l'écriture (1953), a reflection on literary language and on the historical condition, was a collection of his thoughts on structuralism. This essay can be considered the manifesto of a "new criticism." His works on Michelet (1954), Racine (1963), and on others illustrate this critical approach in which Freudian psychoanalysis plays a large role. Social criticism dominates in Mythologies (1957), a reflection on the myths of daily life through which society accepts as natural the historical results of ideology. These concepts brought Barthes to structural linguistics. Élements de semiologie (1964) and Système de la mode (1967) analyze statements concerning the feminine mode and the "code" that it represents, contributing with a rigorous method borrowed from the Danish linguist Louis Hjelmslev to the understanding of the laws of signification. Barthes published a detailed exegesis on a story by honoré de Balzac, which puts forth particularly the theme of sexual ambiguity and castration (S/Z, 1970). Other essays on Sade, Fourier, Loyola (1971), show a growing interest in the significance of the unconscious. Barthes has also written on the group Tel Quel and on Japanese society (L'Empire des signes, 1970). A precursor of critical formalism, Barthes, with five volumes of Essais critiques (1964-84), Le Plaisir du texte (1973), then Roland Barthes par lui-même (1975), avoids being "scientific" so as to give the reader a more humanistic approach (Fragments d'un discours amoureux, 1977). He has also written a meditation on photography (La Chambre claire, 1980), a statement on the rapport between an image and its times. in 1976, Barthes was named to the chair of Literary Semiology at the collège de France.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Barthes roland — Roland Barthes Pour les articles homonymes, voir Barthes (homonymie). Roland Barthes Activité(s) Écrivain sémiologue Naissance 12 novembre 1915 Paris …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Barthes,Roland — Barthes (bärt), Roland. 1915 1980. French critic who applied semiology, the study of signs and symbols, to literary and social criticism. * * * …   Universalium

  • Barthes, Roland — ▪ French critic in full  Roland Gérard Barthes   born Nov. 12, 1915, Cherbourg, France died March 25, 1980, Paris       French essayist and social and literary critic whose writings on semiotics, the formal study of symbols and signs pioneered by …   Universalium

  • Barthes, Roland — (1915–1980) French literary theorist and philosopher, whose work in semiotics made him one of the founding fathers of the more general applications of structuralism . His writings include Mythologies (1957–72, trs. under the same title, 1972),… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Barthes, Roland — See Structuralism (french) and after …   History of philosophy

  • Barthes, Roland — ► (1915 80) Ensayista francés. Basándose en los métodos estructuralistas, intentó descubrir en la obra literaria sus constantes y sus relaciones significativas, así como demostrar la importancia de lo social en la creación literaria. Obras: Grado …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Barthes, Roland —   (1915 1980)   see America and photography …   The Baudrillard dictionary

  • Barthes, Roland (Gérard) — born Nov. 12, 1915, Cherbourg, France died March 25, 1980, Paris French social and literary critic. His early books examined the arbitrariness of the constructs of language and applied similar analyses to popular culture phenomena. He analyzed… …   Universalium

  • Barthes, Roland (Gérard) — (12 nov. 1915, Cherburgo, Francia–25 mar. 1980, París). Semiólogo y crítico literario francés. En sus primeros libros examinó las arbitrariedades de los constructos lingüísticos e hizo un análisis en este mismo sentido de los fenómenos de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Barthes — Barthes, Roland …   Enciclopedia Universal


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